Formative research to understand perceptions regarding Sanitation and Hygiene among different Stakeholders with focus on excluded communities in the districts of Vaishali, Gaya, Madhepura and Sitamarhi.
UNICEF’s Child Environment Programme, together with Communication for Development (C4D) in Bihar, aims to provide technical support to the state government–Public Health Engineering Department and Communication and Capacity Development Unit (CCDU) to conceptualize and implement community-based behaviour change approaches to hygiene and sanitation.
The following aspects for promotion of hygiene and sanitation were the focus of this formative research:
I. Demand for and use of toilets, leading to open defecation-free environment
II. Safe disposal of child excreta and other solid wastes
III. Personal hygiene and hand washing with soap or ash at critical times
IV. Safe water handling, maintenance of water sources and water quality monitoring
Scope and Objectives
- Define current behaviour, practices and habits of sanitation and hygiene at household level.
- Identify key issues (barriers to improved sanitation and hygiene behaviour) that need to be addressed to improve the current status of household sanitation and hygiene.
- Identify decision making dynamics at household level in the practice of improved sanitation and hygiene norms.
- Review differential status (for economic poverty, gender and excluded categories of community), and impact if any, on hygiene and sanitation behaviour change.
- Explore why selective hygiene behaviours are only practised in some households, where household latrine usage is high.
- Match perceptions of primary and secondary stakeholders—identifying gaps if any and suggesting what needs to be done for promoting improved hygiene and sanitation behaviours.
- Provide recommendations for each of the four behaviour change objectives (toilet usage, hand washing with soap, safe disposal of child faeces and safe water handling), around which behaviour change communication messages need to be built.